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American Literature

The Collection of American Literature is noted for its bibliographical strength in nineteenth-and early twentieth-century writings. Manuscript holdings for the nineteenth century include works by Bryant, Irving, Cooper, Clemens, and Whitman. Among twentieth-century authors, Sinclair Lewis, Luhan, Wharton, H. D., Pound, Stein, and Williams are represented by major collections. Also present are the papers of the Societe Anonyme and artists Stieglitz, O'Keeffe, and Marsden Hartley; Philip Barry, O'Neill, Wilder, and papers of the Theatre Guild are among the theatrical holdings. The James Weldon Johnson Collection contains papers of pre-eminent writers of the Harlem Renaissance including Johnson himself, DuBois, Cullen, Hurston, Hughes, McKay, Richard Wright, and Jean Toomer.

SectionsIntroduction
 Modernism at Home and Abroad
 The James Weldon Johnson Collection
 Southwestern Focus
 Theater
 The Ivy League
 Art and Artists
 Turnings
 Books and Broadsides
 Gifts and Bequests

 

Introduction

The Yale Collection of American Literature was formed in 1911 by the gift of Owen F. Aldis, 1874, of his collection of first and other notable editions by American writers of belles lettres. The collection, kept thereafter as a separate entity with its own curator, has continued to develop along the lines of Mr. Aldis's interests, including fiction, drama, poetry, some historical writing, but excluding, for example, work by religious writers or early American historical figures. Bibliographical completeness received greater attention than rarity or association, although rare books and association copies abound.

From the appearance of Anne Bradstreet's The Tenth Muse in 1650 to the present, American literature itself has grown in scope and stature until the list of collectible authors has become ungainly. The idea that a library might attempt to hold, for example, all the works of fiction published in America from 1774 to 1900, which is the premise of bibliographies by Lyle H. Wright, cannot be translated to suit the twentieth century, let alone the twenty-first. Choices and opportunities govern collecting today. Bibliographical completeness, always desirable for authors whose papers are at Yale, has yielded to concentration on textual completeness or representative samples.

While the addition of books has gone on undiminished, and while literary manuscripts were often given to the Yale Library in earlier periods, collection development under former curator Donald C. Gallup, 1934, and faculty advisor, Norman Holmes Pearson, 1932, began to emphasize archival collections of twentieth-century writers. Today it is the author's personal papers that are of far more interest than the fair copy of a poem or an appealing group of letters. The papers that bear witness to the creative process—an author's notes, drafts, setting copies, corrected proofs, and the documentation, such as correspondence, which surrounds them—are chiefly to be desired, but no curator would refuse Gertrude Stein's hand-sewn vests or the other special oddments that often accompany papers. It is through the extended concept of “archives” that the collection has acquired its extra-literary materials such as photographs, works of art, and memorabilia.

The following descriptions point to some of the important archival collections and the interactions characteristic of groups of papers. Far from an exhaustive account of the resources in American literature in the Beinecke Library, these descriptions represent only a few of the major groups of papers. They are followed by a list of substantive holdings.

Modernism at Home and Abroad

No stretch of the imagination is required to appreciate the constellation of Modernist relationships when the papers of Ezra Pound, H.D., Gertrude Stein, William Carlos Williams, Matthew Josephson, Mina Loy, Carl Van Vechten, and Glenway Wescott are to be found in one library. Add to these archives those of Scofield Thayer and his magazine, The Dial, and of the magazine's art critic, Henry McBride, music critic Paul Rosenfeld, 1912, managing editor Alyse Gregory, and resident artist Gaston Lachaise, and the literary history of the period achieves a kind of critical mass. Such works as Pound's Cantos, Williams's Paterson, Stein's Making of Americans, and H.D.'s Trilogy, from the authors' own papers, join such giants from The Dial archive as William Butler Yeats's “Among Schoolchildren,” Marianne Moore's “An Octopus,” Hart Crane's “The Bridge,” T. S. Eliot's “The Waste Land,” and Wallace Stevens's “Bantams in Pine-Woods.”

The vast correspondence present in the archives of the period documents virtually every event of consequence to its authors, from the experiences of Pound, Stein, and H.D. in Britain and Europe during two world wars to the explosive concerts in New York and Paris of George Antheil's Ballet mécanique, scored for piano, percussion, and airplane engines. Trends in publishing and editorial battles; the dwindling exercise of patronage; the strains of writers who toiled as pediatricians, librarians, or insurance executives; the search for physical therapy in Santa Fe or mental therapy in Vienna, and the Jazz Age all surround the creation of modernist literature and suggest the milieus to be explored in conjunction with it.

The correspondence files of Hound & Horn (1927–34), founded by Lincoln Kirstein and named for a line from Pound's “The White Stag,” contain letters of other modernists, who also wrote for The Dial such as T. S. Eliot, Allen Tate, Yvor Winters, and Kenneth Burke. The files of more recent periodicals situate the modernist authors among their younger colleagues. The American Review, Blues, Chimera, Fantasy, Furioso, Tiger's Eye and the papers of its editor Ruth Stephan, Twice A Year and the papers of its editor Dorothy Norman, and View, extend the history of modernist publishing through the 1940s.

The James Weldon Johnson Collection

Founded in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten, this collection stands as a memorial to Dr. James Weldon Johnson and celebrates the accomplishments of African American writers and artists, beginning with those of the Harlem Renaissance. Grace Nail Johnson contributed her husband's papers, leading the way for gifts of papers from Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, Walter White and Poppy Cannon White, Dorothy Peterson, Chester Himes, and Langston Hughes. The collection also contains the papers of Richard Wright and Jean Toomer, as well as small groups of manuscripts or correspondence of such writers as Arna Bontemps, Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, and Wallace Thurman.

Representative manuscripts suggest the richness of the collection: Richard Wright's Native Son; Jean Toomer's Cane; Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God; W. E. B. DuBois's “The Renaissance of Ethics,” his Harvard thesis with annotations by William James; James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man and God's Trombones; and Langston Hughes's The Weary Blues. Examples of the abundant correspondence are letters between Owen Dodson and Adam Clayton Powell, Joel Spingarn and W. E. B. DuBois, Georgia Douglas Johnson and William Stanley Braithewaite. The correspondence of Dr. Johnson and Walter White documents the early history of the NAACP. Also present are music manuscripts by W. C. Handy, J. Rosamond Johnson, and Thomas “Fats” Waller, among others.

Carl Van Vechten photographed hundreds of his friends including all the persons mentioned above as well as Alvin Ailey, Marian Anderson, Pearl Bailey, Josephine Baker, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Eartha Kitt, Arthur Mitchell, Paul Robeson, Margaret Walker, and Ethel Waters, to give but a sampling. These photographs, combined with those collected by Langston Hughes and Richard Wright, form an important visual record of artists, writers, actors, musicians, and politicians active in the United States from the 1920s through the 1950s. Sculpture by Richmond Barthé, Augusta Savage, and Leslie Bolling, drawings by Mary Bell, a portrait head of Ethel Waters by Antonio Salemme, as well as commemorative medals and prints are among the many works of art in the collection. Added in the 1990s, the Randolph Linsley Simpson Collection of photographs of and by African Americans contains over twenty-five hundred images from across the nation. Its formats span the history of photography, from Daguerreotypes and cabinet cards to photographic postcards and snapshots from 1850 to 1930.

James Weldon Johnson and his brother, J. Rosamond Johnson, formed a successful team of lyricist and composer best known for the anthem “Lift Every Voice and Sing.” Less well remembered are the many popular hits they sold as sheet music such as “Under the Bamboo Tree.” They collected sheet music by other African American composers and their collecting pattern continues.

Southwestern Focus

Mabel Dodge Luhan, who early in the century knew Gertrude Stein in Europe and hosted a salon for John Reed and Emma Goldman in New York, settled in New Mexico in 1918 and married Tony Luhan, a Native American from Taos Pueblo. Although Mabel is best known for summoning the D. H. Lawrences to Taos, her papers reveal her friendships with others whose archives have come to Yale. In the 1920s she received repeated visits from Neith Boyce Hapgood and her children. Rebecca Salsbury James, then the wife of photographer Paul Strand, joined the household for a time, as did Georgia O'Keeffe before she built her own house in nearby Abiquiu. Arthur Davison Ficke, a perpetrator of the anti-modernist “Spectra” poetry hoax, spent extended periods in New Mexico. Papers of two other New Mexicans of the next generations have also joined the collections. The archive of Paul Horgan, raised in Roswell, includes manuscripts of fiction set in the West as well as his history of the Rio Grande and a biography of Archbishop Lamy of Santa Fe. And most recently, the manuscripts of poetry and fiction by Leslie Marmon Silko, a Native American from Laguna Pueblo, point toward the future.

Theater

In keeping with Yale's attention to theater, as well as its location in New Haven, formerly the tryout capital for Broadway, archives important for their theater connections have found a home at Yale. The papers of Eugene O'Neill, 1926 Hon., recall his study in George Pierce Baker's famous “47 Workshop” for playwrights at Harvard, the founding of the Provincetown Players in 1915, O'Neill's Broadway successes mounted by the Theatre Guild, and the troubled family of Long Day's Journey into Night. Manuscripts in the author's miniscule hand are joined by typescripts made by Carlotta Monterey O'Neill, set designs, production photographs, and Carlotta's journals documenting their life together until O'Neill's death. Papers of Agnes Boulton O'Neill, Eugene's second wife, cover the 1920s, while the papers of Neith Boyce and Hutchins Hapgood elaborate on the Provincetown Players.

Another student in Baker's workshop, Philip Barry, 1918, succeeded on Broadway with such works as Hotel Universe and The Philadelphia Story, both produced by the Theatre Guild. Graduating from Yale two years after Barry, Thornton Wilder took Pulitzer Prizes in both fiction (The Bridge of San Luis Rey, 1927) and drama (Our Town, 1938). His archive documents not only his career in theater but also his literary friendships, such as that with Gertrude Stein, whose archive he helped to deliver to his alma mater.

The archive of the Theatre Guild and of its founder, Lawrence Langner, is one of the largest in the collection. From the 1920s through recent years, the Guild produced many of Broadway's prominent hits, including O'Neill's Ah! Wilderness, Shaw's Pygmalion, Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs (which became Oklahoma!, also a Theatre Guild production), DuBose Heyward and George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, and William Inge's Come Back Little Sheba. The archive contains scripts that include light plots, blocking notes, and property plots, readers' reports, casting books, road company information, financial papers, cast and production photographs, playbills, reviews, and correspondence with Langner and Theresa Helburn. The anatomy of every Broadway season for nearly a half-century can be gleaned from these papers.

The papers of the Phoenix Theatre, which flourished in New York beginning in the 1950s, attest to the work of T. Edward Hambleton, 1934, 1937 Dra., John Housman, and Harold Prince in producing such classics as Jean Cocteau's The Infernal Machine, T. S. Eliot's The Family Reunion, Chekhov's The Seagull, and O'Neill's Great God Brown. Among the papers are boxoffice reports, production notes, publicity, stage managers' reports, and tour contracts.

Founded in 1949, New Dramatists matched young playwrights with seasoned mentors and fostered the work of Paddy Chayefsky, Horton Foote, John Guare, Donald Margulies, and August Wilson, among many others. Its first forty years produced an intriguing archive that attests to the robust creativity of Broadway aspirants whose successors continue to develop their craft in a converted church in the Theater District.

The Ivy League

The literary archives of many Yale alumni and others adopted through honorary degrees have been acquired by the library, beginning with Joel Barlow, 1778, and James Fenimore Cooper, a member of the Class of 1806 who was dismissed in 1805. The twentieth-century move to preserve extensive archives has resulted in the acquisition of papers of more recent writers. Among them is a trio who graduated within a couple of years of each other. William Rose Benét 1907S worked on the Yale Daily News and applied that experience to a lifetime of literary journalism, first at The Century and later at The Saturday Review of Literature. The papers of his brother, Stephen Vincent Benét, 1919, and the rest of his family, including wife Elinor Wylie and sister Laura Benét, are part of the collection. Leonard Bacon, 1909, became a professor of English at Berkeley and no doubt found his undergraduate years as well as his teaching experiences good sources for his volume of satiric verse, PhDs. Sinclair Lewis, 1907, chose Robert W. Small Fund-town Minnesota for the material of his famous novels Main Street and Babbitt; his papers include his detailed map of “Gopher Prairie,” the name under which he satirized his hometown, Sauk Centre.

John Hersey, 1936, worked as secretary for Sinclair Lewis before becoming a correspondent for Time and undertaking his novels related to World War II, Hiroshima and A Bell for Adano. J. P. Marquand, 1950 Hon., concentrated on the Massachusetts of his college years to create The Late George Apley, the tale of a Boston Brahmin who fought a changing society. Robert Penn Warren, 1952 Hon., distinguished in fiction, drama, and poetry, was first known for All the King's Men and its fabled characterization of the governor of Louisiana as “Willie Stark.”

All of these Yale graduates and honorees won at least one Pulitzer Prize, except Sinclair Lewis who declined the Pulitzer while accepting the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Robert Penn Warren also taught at Yale, as did his long-time friend Cleanth Brooks, 1947 Hon. Together they had edited the Southern Review while young faculty members at Louisiana State University. As pioneers of the New Criticism, they wrote Understanding Poetry and Understanding Fiction, works studied by successive generations of college students. Combined, their correspondence takes in the reigning southern writers of their era, including John Crowe Ransom, Katherine Anne Porter, Andrew Lytle, and Allen Tate. The papers of three other faculty members are closely connected with other parts of the collections. Norman Holmes Pearson, who taught English at Yale, became the friend and confidant of H.D. and Bryher (whose papers are in the general collection), spending time with them in London while he served in the Office of Strategic Services. F. O. Matthiessen, 1924, spent most of his professional career at Harvard where he produced one of the first book-length critical studies of T. S. Eliot, thereby compelling academic interest in Modernism barely a decade after “The Waste Land” appeared in The Dial. Hermann Hagedorn, known primarily as a poet and novelist, taught undergraduate English at Harvard and came down hard on themes and poems by Scofield Thayer, perhaps forcing his aesthetic pupil toward his lifework of editing The Dial rather than writing poetry.

Art and Artists

Twentieth-century writers intersect with their artist-contemporaries, and the collection demonstrates such connections. Mabel Dodge Luhan knew Georgia O'Keeffe, Rebecca Salsbury James, and Marsden Hartley, whose archives are all at Yale. H.D. was a friend of the illustrator George Plank, the artist who decorated her book published by The Brendin Press and whose papers document his career as designer of cover-art for Vogue as well as his years among American writers in England. Henry McBride, the New York art critic and a columnist for The Dial, reviewed exhibitions mounted by Alfred Stieglitz; both their papers are in the collection. The Katherine Dreier papers record the history of her Société Anonyme and the artists she championed, particularly Marcel Duchamp and other European painters. Dreier was an early collector of Wassily Kandinsky, Arshile Gorky, Man Ray, El Lissitzky, Max Ernst, and Abraham Walkowitz. The Yale Art Gallery, the Phillips Collection, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and other museums acquired her collection of paintings.

A number of art works have come to the library through literary archives. Painter and poet Marsden Hartley is represented by four paintings. The library has four “poster portraits” by Charles Demuth, friend of Eugene O'Neill and many other writers; one of the portraits depicts Georgia O'Keeffe, who gave the paintings. Sinclair Lewis sent to the library several of his Childe Hassam paintings and Florine Stettheimer, set designer for the Gertrude Stein/Virgil Thomson opera Four Saints in Three Acts, contributed paintings of Carl Van Vechten, Joseph Hergesheimer, and others. As gifts from Alice B. Toklas came a small Picasso, two French children's chairs upholstered with petit-point designed by Picasso and worked by Toklas, and paintings of Gertrude Stein by Francis Picabia, of Alice B. Toklas by Dora Maar, and of dog Basket II by Marie Laurencin. Elizabeth F. Chapman donated a Picasso collage featuring Miss Stein's and Miss Toklas's calling card. A portrait sculpture of Gertrude Stein by Jo Davidson is among numerous other images of Stein. In addition, there are more than one hundred paintings by Leo Stein.

The collection also includes original drawings and family papers of Peter Newell, illustrator of fiction by Frank Stockton and John Kendrick Bangs. Paul Horgan's archive boasts watercolor drawings of the Southwest–elegant aides mémoires for historical writings. Miguel Covarrubias's caricatures of Eugene O'Neill and Carl Van Vechten, sculpture by Arnold Ronnebeck, Archipenko, and Noguchi, and etchings and other works by Joseph Reed, 1954, suggest the range of genres. Norman Holmes Pearson's collection of “art for the wrong reasons”–drawings and paintings by writers–contains 68 works by Henry Miller, E. E. Cummings, John Dos Passos, D. H. Lawrence, William Rose Benét, Katherine Ann Porter, and others.

The collection holds an abundance of photographs. The largest group consists of portraits made by Carl Van Vechten, inveterate photographer of his friends, including Sherwood Anderson, W. H. Auden, Tallulah Bankhead, Leonard Bernstein, Marlon Brando, Truman Capote, Charles Demuth, Janet Flanner, Julie Harris, Christopher Isherwood, Mina Loy, Rouben Mamoulian, Marianne Moore, Clifford Odets, James Purdy, Man Ray, Gertrude Stein, Georg Szell, Jessica Tandy, Sigrid Undset, Gore Vidal, and Rebecca West among them. In the Stieglitz-O'Keeffe papers are 65 prints by Stieglitz as well as the “wastebasket collection,” trial proofs that O'Keeffe rescued as Stieglitz discarded them. Photographs by Man Ray, Paul Strand, Ansel Adams, and Cartier-Bresson are among groups of professional work. Many of the archival collections contain photographs of families and friends, formal portraits, and travel snapshots.

Robert Osborn, 1928, gave the library his archive of magazine illustrations and outspoken political cartoons. His cartoon work stretched from the useful Dilbert, a character who showed Army draftees what not to do with ammunition in the 1940s, to satiric pictures in the 1950s such as “Industrial-Military Complex,” a row of political, armed services, and manufacturing brass whose heads take the shape of rocket nose cones. Saul Steinberg willed his papers to Yale. Among them are the rubber stamps with which he embellished his cartoons, sketchbooks, drawings, and a selection of colored pencils, his customary tools.

Turnings

Just when we think the last papers from the Modernist era have made their way into a library, a new group appears. At the end of the century, the archives of Sheri Martinelli, Gertrude Buckman, and Dachine Rainer arrived to complement the Pound Era. But as opportunities for adding material from that period diminish, new writers must join the collection; recent additions include the papers of poets Barbara Howes, Barbara Guest, and Maxine Kumin. Mary Hunter Wolf, the first woman to direct a play on Broadway, gave Yale her large archive dominated by her work in the theater and in theater education, and, for many years, as “Marge” on the radio comedy “The Easy Aces.”

The archives of Native American authors also mark additions at the end of a century: Joseph Bruchac (Abenaki), Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo), James Welch (Blackfoot), and Gerald Vizenor (Ojibwa) have all joined the collection in both paper and digital formats. Gary Soto's papers represent Mexican American writing as do sets of first editions of work by Kathleen Alcalá, Rudolfo Anaya, Jimmy Santiana Baca, Dagoberto Gilb, Rolando Hinojosa. The papers of BOA Editions, founded by Al Poulin, suggest a growing interest in the archives of small presses.

Books and Broadsides

The Collection houses about seventy thousand books and broadsides. Its development has followed the lines set down by its first collector while building a broader base than the original emphasis on belles lettres suggests. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century authors occur in great depth with copies of every edition for some of the most notable. Later gifts opened the gates to writing for young people (the Beecher Hogan, 1933, Collection of L. Frank Baum) or mystery writers (a collection of Ellery Queen from one of the two pseudonymous cousins) or Bibliography of American Literature authors whose works Jacob Blanck detected among Yale's holdings. Certain kinds of fugitive literature have found their way into the collection including “Mimeograph books” of poetry from the 1950s and works from very small presses. Also present is an important collection of American and European little magazines, many of them home to first publications by authors whose work later became highly regarded.

Gifts and Bequests

The Yale Collection of American Literature had its beginnings in a gift to the university, and in the following near-century, gifts have made possible its development. Major funds were established through the generosity of Sinclair Lewis, 1907; Mrs. George B. Alvord in honor of George B. Alvord, 1895; Francis Hyde Bangs, 1915, as a memorial to Danforth N. Barney, 1916; Bradford F. Swan, 1925; Thornton Wilder, 1920, and Isabel Wilder, 1928 Dra.; Donald Windham; Alfred Z. Baker; Adele Gutman Nathan; Carlotta Monterey O'Neill in memory of Eugene O'Neill; Carl Van Vechten, and other donors. These funds have been used to acquire books and manuscripts for the collection.

In addition, important gifts in kind have greatly enhanced our holdings. By bequest or by personal or family gift have come the papers of Philip Barry, William Rose Benét, Stephen Vincent Benét, James Fenimore Cooper, Sinclair Lewis, F. O. Matthiessen, Edith Wharton, 1923 Hon., Thornton Wilder, and The Phoenix Theatre (gift of T. Edward Hambleton), as well as archival collections of Rachel Carson (bequest of Carson and gift of Marie Rodell), Hilda Doolittle, Katherine Dreier, Marsden Hartley (gift of Norma Berger), Hound and Horn (gift of Lincoln Kirstein), Arthur Davison Ficke (gift of Gladys Brown Ficke), Mabel Dodge Luhan, Robert Nathan, Gertrude Stein, Alfred Stieglitz and Georgia O'Keeffe, and The Theatre Guild (gift of Lawrence Langner, Theresa Helburn, and Armina Marshall), among many others.

Donald C. Gallup, curator of the Yale Collection of American Literature from 1947 until 1980, has given a lively account of the collection and its history in Pigeons on the Granite: Memories of a Yale Librarian (New Haven, 1988) and What Mad Pursuits (New Haven, 1998).

The following list of articles from the Yale University Library Gazette offers additional information about particular book and manuscript collections.

BARLOW. Dorothy W. Bridgwater, “The Barlow Manuscripts in the Yale Library,” Yale University Library Gazette 34.2 (October 1959): 57–63.

CLEMENS. Gilbert McC. Troxell, “Samuel Langhorne Clemens,” Yale University Library Gazette 18.1 (July 1943): 1–5. Albert E. Stone, Jr., “The Twitchell Papers and Mark Twain's A Tramp Abroad,” Yale University Library Gazette 29.4 (April 1955): 151–64. Bryant Morey French, “The Gilded Age Manuscript,” Yale University Library Gazette 35.1 (July 1960): 35–41.

THE DIAL. Christa Sammons, “ The Dial File,” Yale University Library Gazette 62.1–2 (October 1987): 12–18. Patricia C. Willis, “American Modern: Scofield Thayer, Marianne Moore, and The Dial,” The Yale Review 78 (1990): 301–17.

DREIER. George Heard Hamilton, “Katherine S. Dreier's Library on Modern Art,” Yale University Library Gazette 28.3 (January 1954): 129–30.

FICKE. Gladys Brown, “Arthur Davison Ficke and His Friends,” Yale University Library Gazette 23.3 (January 1949): 140–44.

FLETCHER. Norman Holmes Pearson, “The John Gould Fletcher Collection,” Yale University Library Gazette 30.3 (January 1956): 120–25.

FORD. Donald C. Gallup, “The Paul Leicester Ford Collection,” Yale University Library Gazette 30.2 (October 1955): 70–73.

IRVING. Stanley T. Williams, “The Irving Manuscripts,” Yale University Library Gazette 1.3 (January 1927): 35–38.

JEFFERS. C. Beecher Hogan, “The Robinson Jeffers Manuscripts at Yale,” Yale University Library Gazette 29.2 (October 1954): 81–84.

JOHNSON. Arna Bontemps, “The James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection of Negro Arts and Letters,” Yale University Library Gazette 18.2 (October 1943): 19–26.

LUHAN. Donald C. Gallup, “The Mabel Dodge Luhan Papers,” Yale University Library Gazette 37.3 (January 1963): 97–105.

O'NEILL. Walter Prichard Eaton, “The Eugene O'Neill Collection,” Yale University Library Gazette 18.1 (July 1943): 5–8.

PERCIVAL. Althea G. Wilson, “The James Gates Percival Papers,” Yale University Library Gazette 28.2 (October 1953): 77–81.

PHELPS. Donald C. Gallup, “New Papers of William Lyon Phelps,” Yale University Library Gazette 32.1 (July 1957): 28–29.

POLLOCK. Carl Van Vechten, “Puss in Books [The Anna Marble Pollock Collection of Books about Cats],” Yale University Library Gazette 23.4 (April 1949): 175–80.

STEIN. Norman Holmes Pearson, “The Gertrude Stein Collection,” Yale University Library Gazette 16.3 (January 1942): 45–47.


Written by Patricia C. Willis

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